Monday, July 30, 2007


Bahrain, officially the Kingdom of Bahrain , is a borderless island nation in the Persian Gulf . Saudi Arabia lies to the west and is connected to Bahrain by the King Fahd Causeway , and Qatar is to the south across thePersian Gulf. The Qatar–Bahrain Friendship Bridge, currently being planned, will link Bahrain to Qatar as the longest fixed link in the world.
Bahrain is the smallest, in terms of population, Arab nation in the world, and the smallest Arab member of the United Nations. It is also the least populous country in mainland Asia .

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Monday, July 23, 2007

Water Pollution

Organic wastes such as sewage impose high oxygen demands on the receiving water leading to oxygen reduction with potentially severe impacts on the whole eco-system. Industries release a variety of pollutants in their wastewater including heavy metals, organic toxins, oils, nutrients, and solids. Discharges can also have thermal effects, particularly those from power stations, and these too decrease the available oxygen. Silt-bearing overflow from many activities including construction sites, deforestation and agriculture can inhibit the penetration of sunlight through the water column, restricting photosynthesis and causing blanketing of the lake or river bed, in turn damaging ecological systems.

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Thursday, July 19, 2007


Gold is a extremely sought-after valuable metal that for many centuries has been used as money, a store of value and in ornaments. The metal occurs as nugget or grains in rocks and in alluvial deposits and is one of the coinage metals. It is a soft, glossy, yellow, dense, malleable, and ductile change metal. Modern manufacturing uses include dentistry and electronics. Gold forms the basis for a financial typical used by the International Monetary Fund and the Bank for International resolution . Its ISO currency code is XAU.

Gold is a tinny element with a trait yellow color, but can also be black or ruby when finely alienated, while colloidal solutions are intensely tinted and often purple. These colors are the effect of gold's plasmon frequency lying in the visible range, which causes red and yellow glow to be reflected, and blue light to be engrossed. Only silver colloids show the same interactions with light, albeit at a shorter occurrence, making silver colloids yellow in color.

Gold is a good conductor of temperature and electricity, and is not precious by air and most reagents. Heat, damp, oxygen, and most corrosive agents have very little chemical effect on gold, making it well-suited for use in coins and jewelry; equally, halogens will chemically alter gold, and aqua regia dissolve it.

Pure gold is too soft for ordinary use and is hard-boiled by alloying with silver, copper, and other metals. Gold and its lots of alloys are most often used in jewelry, coinage and as a typical for monetary exchange in various countries. When promotion it in the form of jewelry, gold is calculated in karats , with pure gold being 24k. However, it is more commonly sold in lower capacity of 22k, 18k, and 14k. A lower "k" indicates a higher percent of copper or silver assorted into the alloy, with copper being the more typically used metal between the two. Fourteen karat gold-copper alloy will be almost identical in color to definite bronze alloys, and both may be used to produce polish and added badges. Eighteen karat gold with a high copper content is establish in some traditional jewelry and will have a distinct, though not dominant copper cast, giving an attractively warm color. A comparable karat weight when alloyed with silvery metals will appear less humid in color, and some low karat white metal alloys may be sold as "white gold", silvery in exterior with a slightly yellow cast but far more resistant to decay than silver or sterling silver. Karat weights of twenty and higher is more general in modern jewelry. Because of its high electrical conductivity and confrontation to decay and other desirable combinations of physical and chemical properties, gold also emerged in the late 20th century as an vital industrial metal, particularly as thin plating on electrical card associates and connectors.

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Monday, July 16, 2007

Cloud formation

Thunderstorm clouds are shaped wherever there is enough upward motion, unsteadiness in the vertical, and wetness to produce a deep cloud that reaches up to levels somewhat colder than freezing. These circumstances are most often met in summer. Lightning occurs less commonly in the winter because there is not as much shakiness and moisture in the atmosphere as there is in the summer. These two ingredients work mutually to make convective storms that can produce lightning. Without volatility and moisture, strong thunderstorms are unlikely. Lightning originates around 15,000 to 25,000 feet above sea level when raindrops are carried upward until some of them convert to ice.

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Wednesday, July 11, 2007

Spatial Measurement

The measurement of physical space has long been important. Geometry, the name given to the branch of mathematics which measures spatial relations, was popularised by the ancient Greeks, although earlier societies had developed measuring systems. The International System of Units, is now the most common system of units used in the measuring of space, and is almost universally used within science.

Geography is the branch of science concerned with identifying and describing the Earth, utilising spatial awareness to try and understand why things exist in specific locations. Cartography is the mapping of spaces to allow better navigation, for visualisation purposes and to act as a locational device. Geostatistics apply statistical concepts to collected spatial data in order to create an estimate for unobserved phenomena. Astronomy is the science involved with the observation, explanation and measuring of objects in outer space.

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Thursday, July 05, 2007

In Mathematics

Space is a set, with some particular properties and usually some additional structure. It is not a formally defined concept as such, but a generic name for a number of similar concepts, most of which generalize some abstract properties of the physical concept of space.

In particular, a vector space and specifically a Euclidean space can be seen as generalizations of the concept of a Euclidean coordinate system. Important varieties of vector spaces with more imposed structure include Banach space and Hilbert space. Distance measurement is abstracted as the concept of metric space and volume measurement leads to the concept of measure space.

As far as the concept of dimension is defined, although three-dimensional space is the most commonly thought of dimensional space, the number of dimensions for a space to exist need not be three: it can also be zero, one, two, more than three, finite or infinite, and with some definitions, a non-integer value. Mathematicians often study general structures that hold regardless of the number of dimensions

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